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Literacy Online. Every child literate - a shared responsibility.
Ministry of Education.

Support and strategies for years 1-4

Approaches to teaching writing

Effective Literacy Practice in Years 1–4: Approaches to teaching writing: this resource identifies and describes the features of a range of writing approaches needed to help students in years 1-4 develop the knowledge strategies and awareness required to become effective writers. This includes:

  • language experience activities
  • shared writing
  • interactive writing
  • guided writing
  • independent writing

Developing readers' comprehension strategies

Students need to develop a repertoire of strategies that they can select from purposefully and independently to build and enhance their understanding of text and to extend their critical awareness.

Effective Literacy Practice in Years 5 to 8, p. 141

We need to explicitly teach individual comprehension strategies within the context of purposeful reading but also develop students’ awareness of how these strategies are used in increasingly complex combinations as they read more complex texts.

Resources in years 1–4

Comprehension Strategies: Engaging Learners with Texts from Effective Literacy Practice Years 1 to 4: provides guidance in how to develop the following comprehension strategies when engaging learners with text. This includes:

  • making connections
  • forming and testing hypotheses about texts
  • asking questions about texts
  • creating mental images or visualising
  • inferring meanings from texts
  • identifying the author’s purpose and point of view
  • identifying and summarising main ideas
  • analysing and synthesising ideas
  • evaluating ideas and information

Supporting the writing process

To support students to produce high quality writing that achieves its purpose and has impact on the reader, teachers need to:

  • understand the processes writers move between as they create text
  • engage students in reading and writing rich texts
  • model the writing processes and the “interior dialogue’ that effective writers engage in during the process of creating texts
  • provide a range of cross curricular opportunities for writing texts.

Effective Literacy Practice Years 1–4: Creating texts: this resource identifies the four main stages of the writing process and and provides some examples of "What learners do" and "How teachers can prompt and support learners" at various stages of the writing process. It also provides a case study of this process in action. This includes:

  • forming intentions
  • composing a text
  • revising
  • publishing or presenting
  • case study: Year 1–2 class

Published on: 21 Mar 2016